Programming language: Scala
Tags: Semantic Web    

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RDF stream processing framework written in Scala.

Works with Sesame and Jena and has a small footprint. Supports on-the-fly Lucene indexing. RDFStreamProcessingTest.scala contains several test cases which may serve as examples on how to use. The framework is designed to process very large datasets and has been used successfully to process datasets of the german national library containing more than 100 billion triples. It can process RDF streams in parallel since the Akka actors model has been applied.


Use Maven:


Or with SBT add to your build.sbt file:

libraryDependencies += "com.github.jannvck" % "rdfp_2.11" % "1.0"

Or clone the repository and run sbt in the project root folder. Enter 'test' to run the tests, 'compile' to compile the project or 'doc' to generate API documentation with scaladoc. Use the tests to verify all is running correctly.

Getting Started

The basic building blocks of a RDF stream processor in rdfp are matchers, sources and sinks. While sources are mandatory, sinks are optional. To process RDF triples you have to define matchers, that define which triples will be processed. A matcher consists of a match condition, definition of what to store and how to transform it:

trait Matcher[S] {
  def matches: S => Boolean
  def handle: S => Option[_]
  def transform: S => Option[Set[S]]

The following examples match upon a certain URI on the subject, store the object of a matched triple and apply no transformation.

With Jena:

val jenaMatcher = new SetMatcher(
    (t: Triple) => t.getSubject().hasURI(someURI), // match condition
    (t: Triple) => Some(t.getObject()), // element to store in this Matcher's list
    (t: Triple) => Some(Set(t))) // triple to store, the place for transformations

Or with sesame:

val sesameMatcher = new SetMatcher(
    (s: SesameStatement) => s.getSubject().stringValue().equals(someURI), // match condition
    (s: SesameStatement) => Some(s.getObject()), // element to store in this Matcher's list
    (s: SesameStatement) => Some(Set(s))) // triple to store, the place for transformations

To start processing the RDF source, set up a RDFStreamProcessor instance. An RDFStreamProcessor consists of source, sink and a list of matchers:

trait RDFStreamProcessor[S] {
  val source: Any
  val sink: S => Unit
  val matchers: List[Matcher[S]]

Implementations of RDFStreamProcessors exist for Jena and Sesame. With Jena:

new JenaRDFStreamProcessor(
    "/path/to/dataset", // source
    (t: Triple) => None, // sink

With Sesame:

        () => FileUtils.openResourceFile("/path/to/dataset"),
        (s: SesameStatement) => None,

Parallel processing

You can easily create multiple processors to run in parallel as the following example illustrates with a Sesame RDF stream processor. The producer-consumer pattern has been applied. The file src/test/scala/RDFStreamProcessingTest.scala contains some tests which demonstrate how to use multiple processors.

val consumers = Set[ActorRef]()
val consumedStatements = ListBuffer[Statement[SesameStatement]]()
val processor = SesameRDFStreamProcessor(
    () => FileUtils.openResourceFile(Dataset),
    (s: SesameStatement) => consumers.foreach((c: ActorRef) => c ! Statement(s)), // send matched triple to all consumers
val producer0 = processor.producer
val producer1 = processor.producer
consumers += processor.consumer((s: Statement[SesameStatement]) => consumedStatements += s) // do something with the statement
producer0 ! Start
producer1 ! Start


Special classes exist to store matched elements in a SQL database by using the H2 database. These classes are useful when dealing with RDF streams. They can be used for general storage and are, by modular design, not dependent on the rest of the rdfp code. Implemenatations are available for string keys and values.

  • PersistentMap, Map[K, V] simple key-value SQL storage of arbitrary serializable objects.
  • PersistentMapSet, Map[K, Set[V]] forms a mapping between an arbitrary serializable key object and a corresponding set containing arbitrary serializable objects
  • PersistentNestedMapSet, Map[K1, Map[K2, Set[V]]] mapping scala // find all people lazy val smwPersons = new PersistentSetMatcher[SesameStatement, Value]( "jdbc:h2:" + path + "/tmp/rdfp.smw.persons", (s: SesameStatement) => RDFType.equals(s.getPredicate().toString()) && PersonURI.equals(s.getObject().toString()), // match condition (s: SesameStatement) => Some(s.getSubject()), // element to store in this Matcher's list (s: SesameStatement) => None) // triple to store, the place for transformations

Change Listeners

To watch for changes on components of statments as triples pass along, the SesameRDFStreamProcessor extends the ComponentChangeHandler trait.

trait ComponentChangeListener[Component, Subject <: Component, Predicate <: Component, Object <: Component] {
    def onComponentChange(e: ComponentChangeEvent[Component, Subject, Predicate, Object]): Unit

The received event ComponentChangeEvent is implemented by the case classes SubjectChange, PredicateChange and ObjectChange which carry the previous element and the new one.

Blank nodes

The SesameRDFStreamProcessor extends the BNodeHandler trait which allows to keep track of blank nodes. For example it allows to keep track of the root node of the blank node subgraph. Arbitrary transformations of the subgraphs are possible. The following example will flatten a subgraph containing blank nodes:

implicit val bNMapping = (s: SesameStatement, h: BNodeHandler[Value, Resource, Value, SesameStatement]) => {
      if (s.getSubject().isInstanceOf[BNode])
        Set(factory.createStatement(h.root.getOrElse(s.getSubject()), s.getPredicate(), s.getObject()))

This blank node mapping will have the following effect:

<someSubject> <somePredicate> <b_node0>
<b_node0> <someOtherPredicate> <someObject>

Will yield two triples:

<someSubject> <somePredicate> <someObject>
<someSubject> <someOtherPredicate> <someObject>

Where someSubject is the root node.

Lucene indexing

A IndexingSesameRDFStreamProcessor will by default use a StandardAnalyzer, and DefaultSimilarity. It uses a ComponentChangeHandler and has a special method onNewRootSubject which is called whenever the subject in the RDF stream changes. Subgraphs containing blank nodes are automatically handled (by flattening the subgraph - see previous section) The code snippet below processes an RDF stream and creates an index with Lucene on-the-fly. By default, a new subject will be mapped to a document in the Lucene index. This can be changed by overriding the onNewRootSubject method.

implicit val idxDirectory = FSDirectory.open(new File("data/lucene.idx"))
val proc = new IndexingSesameRDFStreamProcessor(
    datasetReader, // input stream of statements
    (s: SesameStatement) => None, // element to store in the matcher
    List(new DefaultMatcher())) // process all statements

To search an index, standard Lucence queries can be used as in the example below:

val dnbIndex = LuceneSearcher(FSDirectory.open(new File("data/lucene.idx")))
dnbIndex.searchByParsedQuery(fac.createURI(gndo + "preferredNameForThePerson").toString(), "some label", 10)


This software is distributed under the terms of the Eclipse Public License 1.0, see http://www.eclipse.org/legal/epl-v10.html.

*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the rdfp README section above are relevant to that project's source code only.